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Preventing illness or injury is a big part of making your trip relaxing and enjoyable. Because some destinations have environments that may be very different from the area you live in, and travel to developing countries pose certain extra risks, it is important to take certain precautions.
If you are planning to travel outside the United States, the CDC recommends that you:
Prepare a complete travel itinerary, listing each destination, length of stay, and types of activities planned.
Contact your travel agent to obtain local health information, including food and beverage precautions, information regarding insects and other pests, and the availability of emergency medical care.
Check with your insurance company to determine what coverage your policy provides for travel abroad.
Consider the potential benefits of travel insurance and medical evacuation insurance.
Contact your doctor for an up-to-date immunization record and make an appointment to receive necessary vaccinations at least six weeks before you plan to leave.
Obtain specific information on preventive health recommendations based on your itinerary by contacting the CDC's Travel Information website.
Identify contact information for the U.S. embassy or consulate in the country or countries you will be visiting for assistance in case of a medical emergency.
Be sure to also get prescription medications refilled to last the entire duration of the trip. Take extra prescriptions for medications and/or eyewear, in case it is necessary to have them filled while abroad. Wear a medical information bracelet, if necessary, and take along a first aid kit for minor emergencies that may arise.
Eat carefully if traveling to a country with an increased risk of traveler's diarrhea. According to the CDC, travelers' diarrhea is the most predictable travel-related illness. Here are some tips to try to avoid diarrhea:
Eat foods that are steaming hot and well-cooked, as these are usually the safest.
Avoid eating foods from street vendors, no matter how appetizing they look.
Avoid unpasteurized dairy products and raw or uncooked seafood.
Peel fruits yourself.
Drink commercially bottled water or carbonated beverages.
Use bottled water when brushing your teeth.
If you are traveling to a country with an increased risk of malaria, get a prescription for preventive medicine for this disease from your doctor. The medication needs to be taken before you go on your trip, during your travels, and for a certain number of days after you return, depending on the type of medicine prescribed.
Avoid swimming and any water activities in freshwater lakes and streams as you may be exposed to certain diseases. If you are traveling to a country with an increased risk of disease transmitted by mosquitoes, be sure to protect yourself with insect repellents, special clothing, and bednets.